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Citation Formats and Style Guides

Guide to citation assistance

Turabian Style

The core principles of the Chicago/Turabian citation system are in Part II of the Manual  for Writers (Ref LB2369 .T8 2018),

General Introduction to Citation Practices -- Sec. 15, pp. 139-148

Notes-Bibliography Style --

Sec. 16, pp. 149-168-- The Basic Form    

Sec. 17, pp. 169-222 -- Citing Specific Types of Sources (e.g., books, articles, websites, media, documents)

Author-Date Style -- 

Sec. 18, pp. 223-235 -- The Basic Form

Sec. 19, pp. 236-289 -- Citing Specific Types of Sources (e.g., books, articles, websites, sacred works, documents )

Appendix: Paper Format -- pp. 383-420

A.1  General Format  (margins, typeface, spacing and indent, pagination, titles)

The Turabian Citation System is Chicago Style modified for student papers.  They offer two citation styles:

Notes-Bibliography Style (Bibliography Style) -- consists of 3 parts:  number [in text, signals a source], note [footnote or endnote targeting the specific location of a source in an "informal" yet complete style], and bibliography [formal list of sources].  The style usually is associated with the humanities (e.g., history, literature, art).

  1. In text, superscript the Note number (no period) (Ex.1)
  2. Footnote/Endnote number is a normal number with a period (Ex: 1),

Parenthetical Citations-Reference List Style (Reference List Style or Author-Date) -- consists of parenthetical entries and list of sources

The Turabian Citation System is Chicago Style modified for student papers.  It has two citation styles:

Notes-Bibliography (Bibliography Style) -- consists of 3 parts:  a  superscript number [the in-text signal of a source], a note [footnote or endnote informally identifying a source], and bibliography [list formally identifying a sources].  (15.3.1)

  1. Superscript the Note's number (no period) in text (16.3.2)
  2. Note numbers are normal text with a period.  Footnotes (Ex: 1.) are placed the bottom of the reference's page  (16.3.4).  The Endnotes (Ex. 2.) are grouped and located at the end of the text (16.3.4)
  3. Bibliography of all sources cited in the paper and may include items consulted, but not cited. (16.2)
Ibid. ["in the same place"] identifies consecutive, identical sources.

Parenthetical Citations-Reference List (Author-Date Style or Reference List Style-- consists of a parenthetical entry (the in-text signal of a source) (18.3) and References (full bibliographical details for all sources cited and may include items consulted, but not cited) (18.2).

Check with your faculty member to confirm the style details for your course.

Chicago Style

The Chicago Style Manual (16th edition) includes the use of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).  The DOI is a unique string of numbers assigned to electronic journals to identify specific articles [1.74].  DOIs may also be available in electronic/online books [14.167].

DOI Sample: doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.10.048. 

Option:  Make a DOI link active.  Precede the DOI number with the following:


An article's DOI is usually located at the top of the first page of an article.  It may also be available in the item's bibliographic record.  The final option is the DOI Lookup (link below).

Other stable identifiers of articles are stable/persistent/permalink URLS and accession number are acceptable.

Comprehensive sites cover all aspects of using Chicago style.